I by Brittany Stapp-Caudell B I L A T E R A L T O T A L M O D I F I E D Radical Mastectomy and Reconstruction As thousands of women every year are being diagnosed with breast cancer, bilateral mastectomies are becoming both the prophylactic as well as the therapeutic procedure of choice for women young and old to prevent as well as to combat the aggressive, potentially deadly breast cancers. This arti- cle will investigate the indications for mastectomy surgery, as well as a case study of a bilateral modified radical mastectomy in the clinical setting. I N T R O D U C T I O N n today’s society, the term “mastectomy” is commonplace L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S in medical terminology, as well as in the postings of an operating room’s surgery schedule and insurance billing ▲ Examine the evolution of the requests. As thousands of women every year are being diag- mastectomy procedure nosed with breast cancer, bilateral mastectomies are becoming both the prophylactic, as well as therapeutic procedure of choice ▲ Explore the affected anatomy for women, young and old, to prevent and combat aggressive, potentially deadly, breast cancers. ▲ Compare and contrast different surgical options for breast cancer B R E A S T A N A T O M Y The female breasts are paired anatomical structures on the ante- ▲ Evaluate the breast cancer rior portion of the thoracic region of a human being. Both males staging process and females have breasts, although the normal anatomy and physiology of the structures varies vastly between the two sexes. ▲ Analyze the step-by-step The base of the breast is the attached surface of the breast. It procedure for a bilateral attaches to the deep fascia of the pectoralis major muscle, which mastectomy overlies the chest cavity. The base of the breast extends vertically over the ribs numbered two through six, and transversally from the sternum to the midaxillary line. 1 The upper region of the OCTOBER 2009 | The Surgical Technologist | 445