NOVEMBER 2016 | The Surgical Technologist | 497 The Diabetic Surgical Patient L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S s Review the different types of diabetes s Learn about how diabetes affects one’s anatomy and physiology s Recall the special considerations when operating on a diabetic patient s List the complications that diabetes can cause s Explore neuropathy and how it affects diabetics T his article will include a brief and basic review of anatomy and physiology, and discuss the causes, management and complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-diabetes, as well as a discussion of pre-, intra- and post-surgical insulin management in order to avoid surgical compli- cations for the diabetic patient. As a surgical team member, learning about this common disease and its conditions, will provide the surgi- cal technologist with valuable knowledge, understanding and aware- ness so they may provide superior patient care. A N A T O M Y A N D P H Y S I O L O G Y The digestive tract and accessory organs break down consumed food for energy. The digestive anatomy includes the stomach and small intestine, and the accessory organs include the liver and pancreas. Zsa Zsa Chi nn, cst Every five minutes, two people die from diabetes-related causes and 16 adults are newly diagnosed. 6 The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), reports that the total direct and indi- rect cost of diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion. 6 All people struggling with this condition have the same physiological, mental and emotional stressors and mind-sets. Uncon- trolled blood glucose (BG) levels damage the bodies of those who are affected by this condition, and as a result, diabetic patients undergo surgical procedures at a higher rate than non-diabetic people. Due to these complications, “it is imperative that conscien- tious attention be paid to themetabolic statue of patients before, during and after surgi- cal procedures.” 4