418 - Bone Healing

BoneHealing:Normal, Disruptedandthe ComplicationofFatEmbolism L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S s Learn about the processes of bone healing s Explain fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome s List the contributors that help bones heal s Review the factors that disrupt the bones from healing s Discuss treatment options for fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome Ter i Junge , cst, csfa, cspdt, me d , fast N O R M A L B O N E H E A L I N G T he normal process of bone healing involves five stages: inflam- mation, cellular proliferation, callus formation, ossification and remodeling. The inflammatory stage begins at the time of injury and lasts approximately two days. The fracture hematoma, which is a result of the extravasation of blood caused by the injury, is formed during this time. The blood clot serves as a foundation for the subsequent cellular proliferation stage. The cellular proliferation stage begins approximately on the second day following the traumatic event. Macrophages debride the area and allow for the formation of a fibrin mesh that seals the approximated edges of the fracture site. The fibrin mesh serves as the foundation for Following a bone fracture, complete bone healing is expected in eight to 12 weeks under optimal circumstances. For complete union of a fracture, the site of injury should be completely immobilized (by means of an internal or external fixation device) and be in prop- er alignment. Additionally, the patient should be in good general health, well nourished, infection free and all physiologic mechanisms to facilitate the normal process of bone healing should be intact. OCTOBER 2018 | The Surgical Technologist | 445