OCTOBER 2015 | The Surgical Technologist | 449 Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery with Image-Guided Navigation L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S s Eearn about the history of image- guided technology in surgery s Examine the anatomy of the nasal cavity s Explore the potential complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery s List the equipment and instruments needed for this procedure s Review the steps of FESS Kendra G Ray, cst Image-guided technology dates back to the mid-1900s, and surgical- ly based, computer-navigated imaging systems were birthed in neu- rological surgeries long before otolaryngologists discovered the ben- efits of such a system for sinus surgery. Today image-guided surgery assists in confirming what the surgeon may already speculates and gives himor her a comprehensive map for surgical intervention. T he beginning of image-related diagnosis and treatment began roughly 100 years ago when X-rays were discovered. Although surgery came years before the X-ray, this new development gave doctors an anatomy map of the diseased portion so he or she could what they were about to cut into to. As technology evolved, so did the operating room, thus bringing together computers, electro- magnetic/infrared systems, CT scans and the knowledge of the sur- geon forming state of the art patient care. Today’s computer image-guided surgery system works by corre- lating a map of the patient’s anatomy using a CT or MRI scan of the patient with a steri-static performing head registry and subsequently integrating the instruments used in the surgery. The instruments then operate like a GPS reflecting their placement as images seen on the computer monitor showing exactly where the surgeon is working. There are essentially two types of image-guided systems. One is called an infrared system which uses LEDs or reflectors that must be seen or read by the computer in order to track the surgery. The second